For Macro Mondays theme "Edge", this is a small woodworkers square, used to mark straight lines on a piece of wood. Basically a straight edge at right angles to the edge of a board.
Tagged: , woodworking , tools , Macro Mondays , Edge
Believe it or not, there are actually a number of different methods that can be used in commercial joinery and, if you are planning on using it as a part of your job or for a personal project, it’s important to make sure you choose the right one for the application. If you don’t, the overall affect of the work may be affected and it may not last as long as you like. Use this guide to choose the type of join for your commercial joinery project, depending on the type of wood being used or the desired application:
By choosing the most appropriate commercial joinery technique for the project you are completing, you can ensure that your work lasts a lifetime and is not subjected to premature damage. As you can see, there are a number of methods suited to furniture building and construction, so you will always have plenty of attractive joins to choose from.
A basic skill that all people should know for a wide variety of applications is the skill of reading a ruler. Learning how to read a ruler can be complicated at first but knowing the basic measurements can help one to establish further ability to read a ruler.
In most woodworking plans, learning how to read a ruler is essential. Even in grade school, learning how to read a ruler is a basic knowledge. How to read a ruler properly is most important when trying to get an accurate measurement as in building a structure. Inaccurate measurements will result to a disarrayed and unorganized output when working on woodworks such as furniture making.
In learning how to read a ruler, there are symbols that are involved to represent the unit of measurements used in rulers. For instance, the symbol of quote (“) is used to represent the unit of inches. The symbol of apostrophe (‘) is used to represent the unit of feet.
A more concrete example on how to read a ruler will be to represent “three feet eleven and three eighths inches” as represented by the symbol 3’11-3/8″. Another basic foundation on how to read a ruler will be to become familiar with the little marks found on it.
In the United States a standard tape measure or ruler is divided into inches and feet. There are 12 inches in one foot. The inches unit is then subdivided into numbers of lines that are of different lengths. The unit of measurement grows larger as the length of the lines grows longer.
In an inch the longest line in the middle marks the half inch and there is only one of this line in an inch. There are two one quarter of an inch line or ¼” which is represented by the next shortest line in an inch. There are four shorter lines that mark one eighth of an inch or 1/8″ and there are eight shortest lines that mark one sixteenth of an inch (1/16″). In some more precise rulers, they extend to represent the 1/32″ mark on the ruler.
But in most typical rulers, the smallest measurement unit is set to 1/16″. Counting the distance in an inch, there are sixteen lines that represent an inch to be 16/16th long. However, in order to avoid complicated measurement, we often express the fractional units into its largest unit hence an inch.
Therefore it follows that when you have 8 lines which basically represent the unit of 8/16 the largest possible unit of this measurement will be half an inch (1/2″). With 4 lines this represents the unit of 4/16″ that is equals to a quarter inch or ¼”.
When learning how to read a ruler, it would be hard at first to recognize the various lengths and the different measurement units they represent. But with constant practice and intense study one can easily learn how to read a ruler from the basic measurement to a more complicated reading of a ruler.
AB 800 w/47" octa on axis for fill
Incandescent lamp seen in photo used as main light.
I used an ND filter to allow me to shoot at 1.4
Tagged: , max , woodshop , woodworking , light , strobe , strobist , utah , salt , lake , city , 50 , 1.4 , canon , shallowdepthoffield , work , assignment
Which came first?
After Edgar Kaufmann Jr. stumbled upon this house, his father told Frank Lloyd Wright, "We have our builder"
by Seamus McGraw // Winter 2007
It is almost invisible now, a ghost of a building squatting in the shade of looming hemlocks at the edge of the highway. Though it’s now rundown and overgrown, the brooding brilliance of the place endures. You still can see its crisp, horizontal lines formed by the distinctive, rough-hewn rocks, laid by hand three-quarters of a century ago by a gifted craftsman.
It had been magnificent once, a monument to a vision of architecture as art. Those few locals who still remember it in its heyday remember the place known as Lynn Hall as an elegant and sophisticated place.
But that was a long time ago. Now it seems that Lynn Hall is disappearing, retreating back into the mountainside above Port Allegany from which it had been carved. But even more important than the building itself is the mystery that continues to surround it. A remarkable achievement in its own right, the building at the top of a hill immediately brings to mind Fallingwater, the architectural icon that Frank Lloyd Wright designed at Bear Run. And there is a very real question, hotly debated by those few experts who have seen Lynn Hall: Did Fallingwater serve as a model for Lynn Hall, or did Lynn Hall, begun years earlier, provide the inspiration for at least portions of Wright’s masterpiece?
Lynn Hall has almost been forgotten, as has its builder, Walter J. Hall, a brilliant, some say eccentric, local man with a native talent for stone work and a gift for architectural improvisation.
But walk through Lynn Hall now, pushing past the detritus of years of neglect, past the discarded paint cans and old boxes, wading through rivulets of brackish water and clambering over fallen plaster, and the question of which came first echoes with every footfall.
There is no question that Hall was deeply impressed with the early work of Frank Lloyd Wright, though precisely how the backwoods builder learned about the work of the revolutionary and famously flamboyant architect remains a bit of a mystery.
Perhaps, says Frank Toker, the University of Pittsburgh professor who penned “Fallingwater Rising” and has also studied Lynn Hall, Walter Hall came across some of Wright’s designs during a foray to Buffalo, N.Y., where in 1903 Wright built the Darwin-Martin house, a classic example of his prairie-style homes.
It is also possible that Hall learned of Wright’s work through a former employee, Earl Friar, one of the scores of young men from the valley between Smethport and Port Allegany whom Hall put to work during his 50-plus year career. After learning his trade at Hall’s side, particularly his magical skills with stone and concrete, Friar later went to work for Wright at the Taliesin Studio in Wisconsin.
Regardless of its roots, Hall’s fascination with Wright’s sense of style and design and, most importantly, his commitment to harmonizing buildings with the land bordered on the obsessive.
“From the very start, when I went to work with him, he talked about Frank Lloyd Wright,” said Rudy Anderson, who 70 years ago was a young, would-be carpenter whom Hall took under his wing. “He had ideas like Frank Lloyd Wright,” the now 93-year-old Anderson recalls. “Of course at the time, it didn’t mean anything to me.”
It didn’t mean much to the comfortable burghers of Port Allegany or nearby Smethport, then two moderately prosperous oil, lumber and farming communities in McKean County for whom Hall regularly produced predictably traditional homes and fashioned appropriately subdued additions for their appropriately subdued public buildings.
By all accounts, Hall’s obsession with Wright’s organic designs was generally regarded by the locals as an eccentricity, and one that his neighbors and clients might have been willing to tolerate, but would never indulge, certainly not with a contract or a commission.
But that was not enough to prevent Hall from indulging his dream on his own.
In the early 1930s, years before Frank Lloyd Wright sketched the first drafts for Fallingwater, Hall began work on Lynn Hall.
His grandson, Ray Morton Hall, recalls a mixture of idealistic inspiration and cold, back-country pragmatism that led Hall to buy a 55-acre tract at the end of a dirt cow path and to fashion on it a kind of laboratory where, it is widely agreed, at least some of the innovations later applied to Fallingwater would be proved.
The way Ray Morton Hall, known to the locals as Ray Jr., tells the story, the builder was getting on in years, and his wife had died. Though he had built houses for others and from time to time even lived in them until they were sold, he had never really built one for himself. By 1934, he found himself living in various rooming houses, taking his meals at other people’s tables.
“His rationale…was that if he was going to spend the rest of his life in boarding houses and soup kitchens here and there and everywhere, then he might as well build a joint of his own,” Ray Jr. said.
But it wasn’t going to be just any joint. Along with his son, Ray Hall Sr. a budding architect and sometime-builder who had a knack for losing hammers so he wouldn’t actually have to do any real physical work, Walter began sketching out the design for what he would later call a country inn. But this was to be no rustic retreat.
Hall envisioned an organic building, carved out of and molded into the mountainside overlooking the pristine Allegheny River valley. To be sure, the design — long horizontal lines faced with carefully laid and hand-picked local stone capped by a sleek concrete roof and porticos — owed much of its inspiration to Wright.
But the building, as Hall designed it, also reflected his understanding of what the rocky ground of Western Pennsylvania offered and what it demanded of anyone who wanted to build something that would harmonize with it.
In short, as Ray Hall Jr. sees it, Lynn Hall was the first place where the vast blue of Wright’s theories came in contact with the flinty practicality of Walter Hall’s experience.
In Wright’s theoretical world, the land informs the designs. At Lynn Hall, the land itself was one of the designers of the place. The land demanded that. Back in those days, Ray Hall Jr. said, there were no earth movers readily available, no rock drills, no bulldozers. So Walter Hall and the young laborers he hired had to carve out the building site with picks, shovels and a solid appreciation of their own limitations. “That’s one of the reasons the building is up and down all over the place. You dug with a pick and shovel until you came to hard rock, and that’s where the stairs started.”
Rudy Anderson, who signed on to learn carpentry from Hall, remembered his first day on the job at Lynn Hall as something more akin to mining than woodwork. “I told him I wanted to be a carpenter, and he kind of looked me up and down and he says, ‘Why, I’ve got three or four guys like you now and three or four guys lined up behind them to tear down what they do. But come on out in the morning anyway.’ So I come out the next day. The boiler room had to be dug out 20 inches to 2 feet deeper, and that’s what he got me doing. Digging dirt. And I thought, ‘If this is carpenter work, I don’t want any part of it.’”
By 1935, according to both Anderson and Hall’s grandson, much of the work on the main structure — the dining room and ballroom, with its elaborate stone fireplaces and its sleek, carved steps leading to an elegant indoor waterfall and fish pond — had been completed, at least to the point where the vision could be clearly seen and the structure was put on the local tax rolls.
That was when, at long last, Walter Hall and Frank Lloyd Wright crossed paths.
Edgar Kaufmann Jr., son of the man who hired Wright to dream up his masterpiece at Bear Run, had been dispatched by his father to Buffalo to take stock of some of Wright’s earlier work. En route, he found his way to Port Allegany. While looking for a place to grab a quick meal, Kaufmann is said to have gotten into a conversation with some of the locals who told him about the eccentric builder and his odd project at the top of the hill. Kaufmann dropped in unannounced at the unfinished Lynn Hall and talked with Hall. Though he would later describe him in a conversation with author Donald Huffman as “a hillbilly builder,” at the time, Kaufmann was so struck by Hall’s work that he immediately notified his father, saying “this house is chiefly masonry, stone work and concrete — exactly the type we are to build at Bear Run.”
Shortly thereafter, the elder Kaufmann wrote to Wright. “We have our builder.”
The truth was, Wright and Kaufmann desperately needed one.
The first contractor had already walked off the job, claiming that Wright’s design for Fallingwater — which often relied on specifications that were incomplete and in some cases flat wrong — could not be built. That’s when Walter Hall decided to accept the $50-a-week job Kaufmann and Wright had offered him.
Hall’s decision was so swift that it took his young apprentice, Rudy Anderson, by surprise. “I was working for him about three or four weeks, and I took a weekend off and went down to see my sister in Bucks County. While I was down there, he got a call to come down and build Fallingwater,” Anderson told Pittsburgh Quarterly.
“Well, his wife was dead, he was all alone and so he thought, ‘Well this is what I want to do.’ And so he left, and went right down there,” Anderson said. “Well, when I came back I was out of a job. So, two or three, or maybe a week or 10 days later, I got a call from him. He says ‘Come down, I’ve got a good job here.’”
Anderson, who did not own a car at the time, scrounged a ride down to Bear Run and when he arrived at the site, Hall had already established himself as the cock of the walk. “They had just poured the piers under Fallingwater and was pulling the forms off when we come down there,” Anderson said. “He was showing the boys how to grind the concrete with mortar and whatnot. Well he comes right back up on the bridge where I was standing, just
tickled to see me, like one of his own kids.”
Whether the famed architect recognized it or not, his design for Fallingwater left a great deal of room for improvisation. And because Wright spent long months away from the project, Hall improvised with abandon.
Often it was to Wright’s chagrin, Ray Jr. said.
Ray Hall Jr. noted one particularly testy letter to Wright, in which Hall informed the master designer that he had just finished pouring the support piers for the living room at Fallingwater. Hall added curtly, “I put them where I thought they ought to be on account of there’s no dimensions on your drawing.”
Hall, whose ego, by all accounts, matched Wright’s, made changes to the plans as he went along, among other things, adding reinforcement to what he saw as dangerously weak concrete, and in some cases adding flourishes to the building. In one move, apparently inspired by his Lynn Hall experience, Hall decided to leave a massive boulder in place in the living room. “You recall that big stone next to the fireplace?” Hall’s grandson asked. “That was my grandfather’s idea. Wright wanted it removed, and Walter said, ‘Why take it out? It’s natural.’”
As the work progressed on Fallingwater, the clash of egos between Wright and the builder became more dramatic. “Wright was not really a builder. He was a designer, and he was also just about as obstinate as my grandfather,” Ray Hall Jr. said.” The problem was there was only room for one god on a project, and they had two.” On at least one occasion, Walter Hall allowed himself to be photographed wrapped in an Indian blanket, Ray Hall Jr. said, a tweak at Wright’s penchant for wearing capes at the work site.
For his part, Wright made no secret of his irritation with what he perceived to be Hall’s cheekiness.
“I guess I took too much for granted when I called you on to the Kaufmann house. Probably, you have always been your own boss, never worked for an architect and never heard of ethics,” Wright wrote Hall in one letter that Ray Hall Jr. has kept as a treasured memento. “If you imagine your meddlesome attitude to be either sensible or honest — we will not say ethical — something was left out of either your character or your education. I have put too much into this house, even money, which item you will understand, to have it miscarry by mischievous interferences of any sort. The kind of buildings I build don’t happen that way. Several have been ruined that way however and this one may be one of them. It is only fair to say to you directly that you will either fish or cut bait or I will. I am willing to quit if I must but unwilling to go with my eyes open into the failure of my work.”
The work, of course, was not a failure. The moment it was completed, Fallingwater was celebrated as one of the world’s great architectural achievements, and Wright basked in the glory.
There is no question that his design was both revolutionary and spectacular, but though the historical record is unclear, there are elements of the building for which Walter J. Hall deserves great credit, and for which Lynn Hall may well have been the model. The use of radiant heat, which was regarded as progressive when used at Fallingwater, “is probably something Wright picked up from Walter J. Hall,” says Toker. And Hall, who had used a 40-foot reinforced concrete beam that provided the spine for Lynn Hall, appears to have drawn on that experience in his construction at Fallingwater.
There will always be a question about the extent of Hall’s influence over Fallingwater and to what degree Lynn Hall served as a model for it.
As Toker put it; “That Walter J. Hall was influenced by Wright is 100 percent clear, but he certainly did make contributions to Fallingwater. And maybe the
characteristic stone of Fallingwater, which Wright had not exactly used in that
matter, might be a contribution of Walter J. Hall.”
There is little question that Wright, despite his petulant outbursts, recognized that Hall had contributed a great deal to Fallingwater. Ray Hall Jr. says Wright appreciated those contributions enough to offer Hall a job at Taliesin.
But by the time Fallingwater was completed, the builder had enough of Wright. He turned him down.
He returned to Port Allegany, and while he continued to build other homes in the style that he honed at both Lynn Hall and Fallingwater, he never really fulfilled his dream of completing Lynn Hall.
The old cow path that led to the place became part of Route 6, a scenic highway that snakes across the northern tier of the state. An apartment wing was added, and Hall and his son built a cottage — a pump house, actually, that he designed as a small home. It radiates around a central stone hearth, a building that seems to owe as much to the lessons Hall learned at Fallingwater, as Fallingwater owes to the lessons drawn from Lynn Hall.
But despite those efforts, Hall’s vision of a country inn, complete with stylish rooms fashioned out of stone and built in harmony with the land around it, never came to pass.
For a time, it did operate as a restaurant, first run by the family and then by a succession of restaurateurs. It was, by all accounts, a stunningly elegant place that was advertised by a 20-foot high wooden sign posted on the hill above it that could be seen for miles.
Ethlyn Ford, now 88 years old, was a 17-year-old girl when she first took a job as a waitress at Lynn Hall. She remembers it as an almost magical place where scores of nattily dressed customers from as far away as Buffalo dined in the flickering glow of the massive fireplace or glided up the polished stone staircase to dance in the expansive ballroom.
“It was always busy,” she recalled.
But changing tastes and changing fortunes seemed to conspire against it. Gasoline rationing during World War II slowed traffic along Route 6 to a trickle, and business dried up along with it. It didn’t help that Walter J. Hall, a teetotaler, refused to secure a liquor license for the place, though he was willing to turn a blind eye when, during parties or other functions, customers brought their own libations.
By the early 1950s, the restaurant was fading into memory. In 1953, Hall died. His deathbed had been placed near the front window of the little cottage overlooking Lynn Hall and the valley below.
In the years that followed, Hall’s son, Ray Sr., tried to keep Lynn Hall alive, turning it into an office of sorts for his architectural business, but after his death, Ray Jr. says the building slipped into decline.
The decline accelerated when Ray Sr.’s second wife won the rights to the place, and, after living there for a time, virtually abandoned it.
Ray Jr., a retired pilot, and his wife, Rhonda, an educational consultant, eventually regained control of Lynn Hall, but by that time the building needed far more work than they could afford. Recently, they’ve begun the arduous task of trying to document the building’s history and its influence on one of the world’s great architectural masterpieces.
They are trying to have the place listed on the National Historic Register and are hoping that someone with a deep appreciation of the native beauty and historic significance of the building will buy it and restore it to its former glory.
“That’s what we’re hoping for,” says Ray Jr., as he makes his way in the shadows up the central stairway of the old inn, past the long-dry waterfall and the dusty basin of the fish pond and into the long-abandoned ballroom.
Hall understands that finding a rescuer for Lynn Hall is a long shot. But unless that happens, and unless it happens soon, the old place will continue to deteriorate and may be lost forever. That would be a tragedy.
Tagged: , Pennsylvania , Architectural , restoration , Port Allegheny , Lynn Hall , Frank Lloyd Wright
CNC machinery plays a crucial part in the manufacturing world, and I won’t be lying if I say the manufacturing industry revolves around CNC machinery.
Over the years, CNC or Computer Numerical Control machines have taken the market single-handedly because they have reduced the manual workload tremendously.
So, let’s begin with what are lathe machines?
Somewhere around 1300 AD, a two-person lathe machine already existed which was created by the Egyptians. Two major primary task got completed with it,
1. Turning off the woodworking piece manually by a rope.
2. Cutting wood in shape by the use of a sharp tool.
As civilization dawned upon us, the machine went through extensive changes. Due to the growth in technology the lathe machine also went through modifications in its traditional system.
The production of rotary motion is the most notable highlight of today’s lathe machines.
They are controlled by a computer with a menu- type interface, they are designed to use carbide tooling/processes, and it’s modern versions.
This is all about what is a lathe machine, so now let’s dig into what is it used for? And where are they used?
They are multi-skilled machines and which are resourceful for a wide range of industrial operations like Acrylic Spinning, Metal Spinning, Metalworking, Woodturning, Thermal Spraying, Pottery and a lot other.
The reason why lathe machines are so extensively used is that they are easy to set-up and its operations are simple.
Automotive, electronic, sporting, manufacturing and firearm are a few industries where they are put to use.
Here are some significant examples of the same-
2. Cue Sticks
3. Dining Table and Chair Legs
4. Musical Instruments
5. Baseball Bats
Even though it’s easy to operate it should be used strictly by professionals.
Now, there are two types of CNC Lathe machine-
Horizontal Lathe and Vertical Lathe
So, here we will extensively talk about CNC horizontal lathe, and its uses.
So, what’s a CNC horizontal lathe?
Wikipedia defines it as “A lathe tool rotates a workpiece about an axis of rotation which performs a variety of operations like cutting, sanding, deformation, drilling, facing and turning with the help of tools that are applied to the workpiece for the creation of an object with its symmetry about that axis.“
Well, you must be wondering what parts are used in Horizontal Lathes?
Lathe might or might not have legs which help it to support itself while placed on the floor and levitate the lathe bed to the necessary height needed while working.
It might be small to fit on a workbench or table which is why it doesn’t need to stand on its own.
Almost all the lathes have a bed, that’s a horizontal beam which makes it sure that chips or filling of stones falls off smoothly.
There’s a lot of diversity available in horizontal lathes.
Some of the notable ones are –
Woodworking lathes are the oldest in the game and are also addressed as turning lathes.
Evolution of the machines has been done in a very promising way.
Metal lathes are an excellent example of horizontal lathes they come in various shapes and size depending on what operations they perform. The drilling machines are a notable tool to which the horizontal lathes are combined.
Technology is getting smarter day by day. Therefore, CNC horizontal lathes are also getting smarter and growing fast, making work considerably easy.
Manufacturer and industrialist are contented to see the production time cutting down due to horizontal lathes.
One person is all that you need to set up and monitor the lathe. The operator is solely responsible for specific tasks for a given period of time.
Lately, CNC horizontal lathes have become more technologically advanced, which didn’t hamper the design.
Horizontal lathe machines or CNC machines, in general, are completely closed, for safety and health purposes.
Most of the horizontal lathes are automatic which requires little to no human involvement. The modern technology programming and automation has resulted in very few errors which increased the production percentage by 25%.
Horizontal lathes have advanced technology and don’t need a regular movement of its parts, or its location. Improvements like these have brought down the delay it used to take in the production.
The two-and-a-half-storey Durand Union Station was designed by architects Frederich Spier and William C. Rohns, who also designed the Niles and Dowagiac stations, and completed in 1903 for the Grand Trunk Railway System and the Ann Arbor Railroad. This facility was constructed in the Chateau Revival style with Missouri granite brick and Bedford cut stone, with a slate roof. Its turreted west end with its circular porch faces the former Grand Trunk Railway mainline. Its interiors featured marble wainscoting and terrazzo flooring on the ground floor and oak woodwork throughout. The original station contained a ticket office, waiting rooms, ladies’ parlor, gentlemen’s smoking room, large corridors and a dining room. The second floor served as railroad office space, crew sleeping quarters, and telegraph offices. The cost of the structure was $60,000 in 1903.
219c 8 – TAC_7463_HDR – lr-ps-wm
Tagged: , Durand , Historic_depot , train_station , Durand_Union_Station , Michigan , pure_michigan , 1000views
Planers can be used for a variety of tasks including milling glued-up hardwood panels, thicknessing and surfacing lumber and making mouldings. Some of these tasks can be duplicated by other machines such as a wide-belt sanding machine or a drum sander. When you have digested the contents of this article, you should have enough information to make and informed purchasing decision.
In the “old days” (whenever that was) lumber was simply sawn out of logs and left to air dry. If you wanted to be able to see the grain so that it could be matched with other boards, it had to be planed. If you wanted it planed, you needed a long bed hand plane and a lot of skill. With the invention of the planer, no one needed to plane boards by hand any more and the practice stopped in the name of “progress.” Today, most boards are delivered already thickness planed and some are even straight line ripped on one edge, making things very easy for the woodworker. So, why own a planer?
Thickness planing does not end at the lumber yard. Lumber, once edge glued into panels is still uneven and the boards are never in perfect alignment with each other. Something must take this rough panel from, say, 1 7/8″ down to its final thickness of, say, 1 ½”, smooth both sides. There are two ways of doing this that I know of: an abrasive planer (wide-belt sander or drum sander) or a planer that uses knives in a cutterhead.
A combination of a knife planer and an abrasive planer would be ideal but not always affordable. This is because planers have a way of tearing chips out of loose grain. They are, however, much faster in removing material than a sanding machine. A sanding machine will never tear out chips but it may use up a lot of valuable production time. So, in an ideal world, where money didn’t matter, you could do most of the thicknessing with the planer and then finish up to the final thickness dimension with the sanding machine.
In fact, if you have the money and need to do your woodworking on an industrial scale, there are machines with a planer head followed by two or more sanding heads. I had the chance to use such a machine for several years. A friendly competitor bought it for his woodworking firm in Hawaii and had it shipped in by ocean freight from the mainland.
This giant machine, made by Cemco, used 880 volt, 3 phase motors. A ten HP motor ran the conveyor belt and the one planing and two sanding heads each had 60 HP electric motors. It could plane and sand panels 52 inches wide. In size, it looked like a large, industrial printing press. My friend bought into a sawmill and had Hawaiian Koa wood shipped by barge from the Big Island to Oahu where he had constructed a dehumidification kiln next to the Cemco machine. Eventually, he over-extended himself financially and had to close his business. He found a buyer for the planer/sander but he had to ship the huge machine all the way back to the mainland because no one in Hawaii had a use for such a machine. Of course, I don’t know what your plans are for a planer but I’m pretty sure you won’t be buying a Cemco any time soon. That still leaves a lot of sizes and types of planers to discuss.
A planer/jointer uses the same cutterhead for planing as it does for jointing. It looks like a jointer but it also has a space underneath the jointer table where you insert boards for planing. You feed the boards in one direction on the jointer table, above the cutterhead, and in the opposite direction through the planer underneath the cutterhead. This is because the cutterhead only spins in one rotational direction. A planer, if it has molding capability becomes a molder simply by removing the straight knives and replacing them with profile cutters.
Most planers are constructed with the cutterhead mounted in the top part of the machine and a metal table with rollers underneath the lumber being planed. The thickness is adjusted by raising and lowering the table with relationship to the cutterhead above. The lumber is driven through the machine by the front roller or rollers which are usually serrated for better grip. The outfeed rollers are at the same height as the infeed rollers but they are usually not powered and are shiny and smooth. There are some large, expensive planers in which all rollers are powered.
There are three types of cutterheads: straight knife, spiral and helical. The terms “spiral” and helical are often used interchangeably although this is inaccurate. There are strong similarities between the spiral and helical types but there IS a difference as I will explain. Straight knives are used on most planers in the less expensive range. For the most part, straight knives are fine but they do have two drawbacks: they are difficult to align with each other after changing and they tend to tear out loose grain more easily.
Helical and spiral heads get around both problems to a large degree. It has been found that a bunch of small cutter blades arrayed in a spiral wrap around the cutterhead will minimize splintering. Helical knives are usually square or rectangular in shape and sharpened on either 2 or 4 sides. They are mounted directly onto the face of the cutterhead and, thus, require no adjustment to align them with each other. To change a cutter in a helical head, you simply remove the screw that holds it in place. If there are unused edges on the cutter, you can rotate that cutter to exposed the new edge to the wood and then replace the screw. You buy cutters by the box and replace them as needed: Sometime you replace just a few that have become nicked. At other times, all cutters have been dulled on all sides and it is time to replace them all.
The spiral cutterhead is different from the helical head in that Spiral Planer Cutterhead, a whole row of cutters, connected together in a flexible strip are attached to the spiral head, One row at a time. There are spiral tracks or indentations in the heads that locate the cutter strips. There may be three or so tracks on a spiral cutterhead. Helical cutterheads are much more common than spiral heads.
El Paso, TX, est. 1873, pop. (2015) 679,000 • Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, est. 1659, pop. 1.4MM) • El Paso-Juárez Metropolitan Area, pop. 2.7 MM • Life on the Line, NY Times Magazine
(R) Vogue Building
(C) Gem Theatre Bldg, built circa 1885, demolished 2013 • aka Odd Fellows Building, Gem Building • built by brothers Charles & Henry Lesinsky of New York • original 1886 tenants were the Henry Beneke Hardware on the ground floor & the Intl. Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF), whose 3rd floor hall was also frequently used for union meetings
• in 1910, Ohio-born Joseph L. Kopf (1874-1943) [photo] purchased the Odd Fellows’ Building • moved his Gem Saloon with its elaborate bar (said to be 40 ft. long), restaurant, barber shop & cigar store into the building’s ground floor, displacing El Paso’s Studebaker wagon agent — Fassett & Kelly Hardware • reserved the 2nd floor for offices • Odd Fellows Hall remained on the 3rd floor • the Gem Barber Shop later added turkish baths for gentlemen —El Paso Herald, 26 Jan, 1910
• the Gem’s origins trace back to Jun, 1884, when its forerunner, the Pictorial Theater, opened across the street at No. 29 • had its own traveling troupe of entertainers, including local blackface artists Boyd & Swain • placed in the current cityscape, the building would be situated between the Palace (née Alhambra) Theatre & the S. corner of S. El Paso / W. San Antonio • the complex had a restaurant fronting the street, a bar room, club room & a ~300-seat theater behind the main structure, with an additional entrance on Market St. (the alley) • during performances, drinks & food were served in the boxes —El Paso Herald-Post, 05 Jul 1976 • Lone Star Locals, Vol. XII, No. 6, 5 Nov, 1884
• the Pictorial’s management included theater vets who had moved over from Can Caddagan’s National Theater (née Coliseum) which — before it was reduced to cock fights, then unceremoniously closed in 1887 — presented variety acts, bands from Mexico City & operas such as Martha, featuring soprano Emma Abbott (1850-1891) • the noted diva also headed the Emma Abbott Grand English Opera Company, first in the U.S. founded by a woman • toured the country with up to 60 members in her troupe —El Paso Evening Post, 30 May 1928
• Nellie Boyd (1848-1909) [photo], among the best-known traveling actors in the West, was one of the Pictorial’s biggest draws • having been the first established star to perform on a Borderlands stage, such was her local popularity that she was known as "First Lady of the El Paso Theater" • was both a leading lady & manager of the Nellie Boyd Dramatic Company (est. c. 1876) which — traveling by rail & stage — toured western cities, towns & villages from British Columbia to Mexico, 1879-1888 • one of several women who managed a traveling repertory company in the last quarter of the 19th c. —The western career of Nellie Boyd, 1879-1888, Eliana Crestani, 1966
• the theater was damaged by fire, 14 Jun, 1894 • major remodeling, Jan, 1885 • by March, financial difficulties forced the owners to hand the business over to their landlord, Connecticut-born real estate developer George Look (1854-1917), who had arrived in El Paso by stagecoach c. 1880 • reopened as the Gem Saloon & Theater [photo], 05 Sep, 1885, G. Look & J.J. Taylor, proprietors • with the latest revision of El Paso Street addresses, the Gem’s address leaped from No. 29 to No. 201, although management also used No. 127 because their building adjoined No. 125, also owned by Look [map]
• when the Gem opened, there were about 20 saloons in El Paso serving a population of ~5K • the Gem offered roulette, sweat (chuck-a-luck), crap, monte, keno & faro —19th Century Gambling • The Whiskey That Won the Wild West
• in addition to the gambling, dining, drinking & variety shows in the theater, "the swellest bar in town" brought in a piano & vocalist • offered up to the minute baseball scores on the Gem Blackboard • drew crowds with a new phonograph • staged wrestling & "fistic fights" in the theater • installed a Western Union line to call the James J. Corbett – Chas. Mitchell match by rounds • received daily "Frisco racing" results by direct wire from the track • staged a chess match by wire — El Paso Herald-Post, 05 Jul, 1976
"We passed through the door, and entered a room filled with a promiscuous crowd. There were Chinamen. Mexicans (real ‘Greasers’), negroes of all shades and colors, a few cow-boys, and some business men.
"I first thought that these places were licensed. I have learned since that there is no such a thing; but the city of El Paso derives quite an income from these ‘dives’ nevertheless. At the end of each month a collector goes around and fines (note this particularly) each keeper of a gambling-house (I think, fifty dollars), and if he cannot pay the fine the majesty of the law steps in and closes his place." —Letters from the Southwest, Rudolph Eickemeyer, 1894
• apparently the shakedown actually consisted of three classes of monthly "license fees" based on the class of the clientele • the Gem was in the highest class & paid $200/mo. (about $5,000/mo. in 2016 dollars) • pressure from the Law and Order League in the form of prohibitively higher fees, resulted in the closing down at least 4 houses • in 1896 the Governor sent in the Texas Rangers to shut down illegal prize fighting —Samuel J. Freudenthal Memoir
"Over fifty of the sports have left town for San Antonio, Fort Worth, Prescott, Tombstone, Phoenix and other points where gambling is tolerated. It is believed around at the Gem that 150 to 200 sports will quit the town, a large percentage being negro gamblers." —El Paso Herald, 5 August, 1889
"Dance halls in El Paso were closed last night and the death knell of gambling was sounded when 100 good citizens of the city banded themselves together and agreed to furnish the money necessary to prosecute all violations of the Texas gaming laws. Within the past few days, the gambling devices have been removed from the Pullman saloon, the Gem, the Zeiger, the Tammany club, and the Toltec saloon, and from many other ‘popular’ places." • somehow, the Gem survived this and another crackdown in 1894 —El Paso Herald, 10 Aug, 1889
• the Gem, like several other Old West saloons, is remembered as the site of a famous gunfight • on 04 Apr, 1885, one of the saloon’s patrons, former lawman William Polk Rayner (1857-1885), was mortally wounded at close range (6 ft.) by Robert Bates "Cowboy Bob" Rennick (b. 1861) • Rennick’s friend, Charles M. "Buck" Linn, who had seen young Faro dealer Robert Cahill separating the combatants before the shooting began, pursued and threatened Cahill, assuming he was complicit in Rennick’s death • Cahill retreated, returned with a pistol & killed Linn • one of the witnesses was lawman Wyatt Earp, who was in town visiting a friend • he testified the next day:
"According to Earp’s possibly embellished account, he watched Rayner closely as he approached. At one point Rayner drew his gloves through his hand, slapped his palm with them, and said, I suppose you know that when a Southern gentleman goes hunting trouble, he likes to take his gloves along? He sometimes finds them useful.
"’The kind of trouble you’re heading into right now, Rayner, can’t be handled with gloves,’ said Earp" …read on at HistoryNet
• c. 1907, the Gem moved next door to No. 125 • the "Old Gem" building became J.M. Cannon Mercantile and later a jewelry store operated by Peter Kern • in 1910, once the Gem had made its final move — across the street to the this building [map] — George Look had the "Old Gem" demolished & replaced it with the Hotel Fisher (1910) • in May, No. 125 was demolished to make way for the W. San Antonio St. extension
• by the early 1920s, having hung on briefly as a family restaurant, the Gem Saloon faded away • it was replaced by the Splendid Café, Golden Bowl Café, World’s Museum, a series of retailers & in 1962, El Paso’s first Ben Franklin Five & Dime Variety Store • the Gem Barber Shop survived through most of the 1920s — EP herald Post 15 Sep, 1963
(L) First National Bank Building, built 1883, burned, 2012 • one of the first major buildings to be erected downtown after the arrival of the railroad in 1881 • destroyed by fire, 2012 [photos] • vintage interior photo
Marker: First National Bank
"The First National Bank Building was constructed in 1882-83 as part of the real estate boom that took place after the arrival of the railroad. Joshua and Jefferson Reynolds, active in New Mexico banking, financed its construction and were the bank’s first presidents. It was originally a two-story structure in the Italianate style but in the mid-1880s a pitched roof, which served as the walls of a third floor, was added. This transformed it into the Second Empire style. The interior had elaborate woodwork and glass partitions that separated the many offices and professional spaces. By 1900, a main entrance was installed near the center of the East San Antonio side of the building.
"Over the years the First National Bank Building has housed many businesses and services, including the Wells-Fargo and Company’s Express, the Texas & Pacific Railroad, and the El Paso Herald newspaper. The building’s most famous tenant was gunfighter John Wesley Hardin who had his law office here on the second floor, on the El Paso Street side, in the 1890s. When the First National Bank merged with the American National Bank in 1914, it vacated the building. As one of El Paso’s most prosperous banks it thrived for more than fifty years but closed its doors in 1933 during the Great Depression. Since that time the building has undergone several renovations and continues to serve as retail and professional office space."
• John Wesley "Wes" Hardin (1853-1895) [photo] was an outlaw, controversial folk icon & arguably the most feared gunslinger in the American West
• born near Bonham, Texas • named after John Wesley, founder of the Methodist faith • said to have run away at age 9 in an attempt to join the Confederate army • his father, Tennessee-born Methodist preacher James "Gip" Hardin (1823-1876), was also a circuit rider, farmer & slaveholder • his mother was Mary Elizabeth Dixson (1826-1885) • the couple raised 10 children
• although most of the killing in the Old West was accomplished by not particularly accurate back-shooters, Hardin was reputed to be fast & deadly, honing his marksmanship & draw through practice • killed 12-40 men, the 1st, a former slave, at age 15 • an apocryphal story has him killing another for snoring • claimed to have killed 42 men, but contemporary newspapers said the actual number was 27 • met & befriended Western legend Wild Bill Hickok through a dispute involving a large logo of a bull with an erection, painted on an Abilene, KS saloon
• with a $4,000 price on his head, was captured & sentenced to serve 25 years in Huntsville Prison • while in "the joint," he studied law & wrote an autobiography, The Life of John Wesley Hardin: As Written by Himself, much of its content now considered wildly exaggerated or simply made up • conducted a Bible class for fellow convicts • released from prison with a law degree, 1894 • passed the state bar exam • opened a law practice in this El Paso building, c. Feb. 1895
• one of his early clients was former prostitute Helen Beulah M’rose (1872-1904), mistress of Polish cowboy/rustler Martin M’rose • hired Hardin to fight extradition of her "husband," who was incarcerated across the border in Juárez • as he arranged for M’rose’s release pending approval of Mexican citizenship, Beulah became her lawyer’s mistress • hearing of the affair, Martin R’rose decided to cross the border into the U.S. • theories as to why he did this include: 1) he decided to surrender to American authorities 2) he was lured over by crooked lawmen looking to collect the substantial bounty on his head 3) Beulah (& possibly Hardin) wanted him killed • M’Rose crossed the border into the U.S. and was immediately shot dead — probably ambushed — by waiting lawmen —Wikipedia • Goddess of War, Dennis McCown
• in Aug., young El Paso lawman, John Selman, Jr., arrested "widow" M’Rose for "brandishing a gun in public" • Hardin confronted Selman & the two men argued • on Monday afternoon, 19 Aug., 1895, Selman’s father, the cane-carrying Constable John Selman, Sr. (1839-1896) [photo] — himself a notorious gunslinger & sometime outlaw — tracked down Hardin & exchanged heated words • that night, Hardin played dice at the Acme Saloon at 225-227 San Antonio St. (now San Antonio Ave.), about 1.5 blocks from his office
• shortly before midnight Selman Sr. walked up to Hardin from behind & shot him in the head, killing him instantly & leaving an exit wound by his left eye [post mortem photo] • Selman fired 3 more shots into the corpse on the floor • was arrested for murder • pled self-defense claiming Hardin attempted to draw, resulting in a hung jury • released on bond, pending retrial • before the retrial, Selman was killed in a shootout with US Marshal George Scarborough, 6 April, 1896 —Tumbling Dice Wins Hardin a One-Way Ticket to Hell • Murdertopia • The Man Who Killed John Wesley Hardin, Gun Raconteur • Hardin’s Deadly Tools, True West
"Like most of his contemporaries, Selman would have laughed hilariously at the idea of today’s Hollywood confrontation of two protagonists walking toward each other down the middle of an open street, guns left holstered until the opposition commenced festivities by essaying a draw. It just wasn’t done that way, and on the night of August 19, 1895, "Uncle John" Selman gave a classic demonstration of the style that had kept him alive long past the age when most good gunslingers had passed to their reward." …read on at Dark Canyon
"In a vintage 1924 article, John Hunter quotes John Wesley Hardin’s midwife as predicting he would either turn out to be a ‘great hero’ or a ‘monumental villain.’ In truth he was wholly neither…. and a little of both.
"Hardin was a prime example of that special breed of men known collectively as ‘gunfighters.’ Given the proliferation of firearms in the Old West of the 1860’s, 70’s and 80’s, just the fact of packing a Colt wasn’t near enough to qualify someone as a true gunslinger. Nor did a single occasion of firing a gun in defense or anger make one an accomplished gunfighter." …read on at Legends of America
• Bob Dylan named the song & album John Wesley Harding (1967) after the gunslinging outlaw/lawyer, accidentally misspelling his name
• video: John Wesley Driving Tour (2:48) • HABS TX-3308
Tagged: , El Paso , el paso county , texas , tx , united states , usa , southwest , north america , architecture , building , commercial , business , office building , saloon , bank , gunfight , wild west , 1880s , 20th century
I have read a lot of product reviews over the years. I also offer product reviews for the products we sell, as well as use them on blogs and articles to help people with buying choices. It did occur to me that sometimes people can be skewed towards buying or not buying something because of the way the product review is written. When I sat down to look at some factors that I take for granted, I was compelled to put this article together. I hope you find it helpful. It is slanted towards the woodworking industry, particularly routers and router tables. I think you will find that the mindset or theme will work for any type of product.
When reading a review right off the bat I think of these main areas of the person that is leaving the review. These are the main areas in which we will discuss.
This is the first subject that usually gets a lot of comments on. Let me begin with this statement. “I really understand the shipping process” I have worked in this industry at one time and I have seen every aspect from a package getting from point A to point B. If there is one thing that is a constant in the universe it is this, shipping companies damage boxes. There is no way around it, and sooner or later it will happen to you. Manufacturers design their packaging around the fact that it is rough world when your package gets picked up and on to your destination. You have to consider the sort facility and the way things get handled. Speed is the ultimate theme and shippers go by how many packages they sort out each night. Being careful is a goal but not always the golden rule. So when an item comes damaged, most vendors jump through hoops to help you replace the item or fix the problem. It is a headache, and if they can design a box to relieve that headache, they most certainly will because it reduces their replacement costs. So any comments on shipping damage really need to be taken with a grain of salt.
This is a sensitive area, since it is closely tied to emotion. I will try to tread lightly, but I will be blunt in some areas in order for the reader to get the most out of this content. When it comes to power tools, some people just do not have any experience and some have extensive experience. It is hard to figure out who is who when you are reading a review. To be honest, some people have no business owning a power tool, yet they go to great lengths in leaving some scathing reviews. Others have a perfectionist type of view that can give you some great insight about the product. Some are Engineer types that can go into great detail and offer design changes that they think would make the product better. So how do you approach this problem? I think the best way to evaluate it is by simply knowing the fact that there are different levels of experience out there and everyone is entitled to their opinion. You just never really know who you are talking too when reading a review or getting advice from someone, you just have to use your gut feeling.
Some reviews are written in sense of an expectation of that product that has either been met or not. If you expected a product to be of a certain design or quality and it is not, your expectations have not been met. Most people draw from this and use it in their review. Another avenue of this thought is that people write about their experience based on using the item right away. Perhaps the tool met their expectation right away but then they quickly grew out of it or moved on in their skill level. The media also has tremendous influence on what our expectations are for products. Most of the time this is based on mass appeal and it’s designed to do one thing and one thing only and that is to sell you the product. Just because someone says they are an expert does not necessarily mean it is true.
Customer service is often commented on but it has some bearing in some instances. For example if you are speaking directly to the manufacture themselves, then customer service can be influential. If you are speaking to a distributor of a product, then how they handle your service situation is up to them and only reflects on their company, website or business, not necessarily the product. This can skew some reviews. Of course good customer service can always be a positive factor, it is really the product you are reviewing not your buying experience. Someone should make a service about that!
I choose to add this section because I have seen overtones of this that leak into reviews. Emotion is powerful and sometimes it is hard to shake a pre conceived concept. That concept is from the old “mail order” days when the industry was brand new. Most “mail order” companies sold junk and it was all about conversion ratios and quotas. Today most companies and vendors realize that Internet sales are a huge part of their business and a great way to reach out to customers from all over the world. So here is a concept that I and most good companies embrace. The sooner customers and the general public figure it out the better. (This is the blunt part I was talking about)
Companies want and need to take care of their customers for a very good reason. If you become a customer once, there is a good chance that you will buy from us again. If you buy from us again, you reduce the cost of acquiring a new customer and that improves the amount of money a company makes. Bottom line: if you are my customer, I want you to buy from me over and over again. This is how we stay alive.
I have no interest in making you mad, or delivering a poor product, that would be stupid and go against the business plan. If you are happy, then my life is easy. If you are mad, my day sucks. I like stress free days, so it is in my best interest in doing a good job so that you come back.
I thought it was worth mentioning that assembly can be part of the product review formula. Let’s face it, there is a new problem alive and well today and it is most irritating. That problem is the lack of good clear and concise directions. Remember when software use to come with a book on how to use it? Now day’s vendors think it is OK to be vague. I am not sure who thought this was a way to save money or not, but it is irritating. I think directions are an influence but not always the deciding factor. It is worth noting that not everyone is good at the obvious. (Blunt I know) but I am amazed at how often that putting Tab A into Slot B eludes some people.
Product companies have a mindset of selling product and making goals. Part of the goals is keeping replacement costs down by good design and good techniques. It is just about as simple as that. Some Brands are better at it than others; those are the ones that last in the industry. Look for manufacturers that embrace this concept by developing their authority. Most good companies really enjoy happy customers.
I hope this has helped you with interpreting customer reviews. It was intended in teaching you how to write one, but more of an education of how people write them for the world to see. The one thing about the Internet, comments stay forever and reputations are made and broken over time. Getting a good assessment of a product can sometimes be harder than you thought.