Beware of Removable Media Place in Cyber Crime

Even something as big as a global meeting of nations could have its share of cyber mischief, and innocent-looking USB thumb drives and smartphone rechargers could be the crime tools. Not all malicious threats are clear to notice as DDoS (distributed denial of service). The G20 Summit was held in St. Petersburg on September 5-6, 2013 with a group of finance ministers and central bank governors of 19 countries and the European Union. Specifically, they were Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the European Union, represented by the President of the European Council and by Head of the European Central Bank. Russia took the G20 presidency on December 1, 2012, a first for the country. The major categories of thought and planning are Business 20, Think 20, Civil 20, Youth 20 and Labor 20.

At the September 2013 summit, heads of state and their teams were given USB thumb drives with the ability to copy sensitive data from the laptops that they were inserted in. Reports also noted that the representatives received smartphone recharger gifts that could have covertly looked at their emails, SMS and phone calls. Was anyone purposefully trying to spy on the G20 participants? If so, who was responsible?

The “spying” campaign was first noticed by Herman Van Rompuy, the President of the European Council, noted the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera. It covered the story on its front page. Mr. Van Rompuy ordered analysis of the USB pen drives and other devices by both intelligence experts in Brussels and Germany’s secret service. The Brussels component declared that the allegations were not true and that there was nothing wrong with the gift devices.

How can thumb drives and smartphone chargers be used to hack devices that access the Internet? In fact, they are responsible for some cyber attacks offline! Kaspersksy noted in August 2013 that it is “becoming more and more common for attackers to find new ways to infiltrate your devices, like through your removable media.” Removable media includes readers, writers, and drives.

Every optical disc (Blue-ray disc, DVD, CD), memory card (CompactFlash card, Secure Digital card, Memory Stick), floppy disk, zip disk, magnetic tape, disk packs, VHS tape, USB flash drive (also called ), external hard disk, digital camera, printer, smart phone and other external or dockable peripheral that are easily removed or inserted into a system is removable media. They all are capable of infecting, copying, and spying on the system and network if they have the right compromising file on them. If they can store media, that media could be a malicious threat.

Some best practices to use when using USB thumb drives or other removable media:

1. Set up automation of scans the second items are plugged into a device.

2. Regularly update device OS (operating systems). Updates are available for Mac, Windows, Android, Linux and other operating systems. Set up the updates to occur automatically or to even do so manually at least once per day.

3. Know what is behind the Facebook, Twitter or other social network chat, wall, timeline or private message attachments and links. One good tip is to hold one’s mouse over the link without clicking to see a preview of what is there.

4. Removable media for personal needs should stay separate from those of crucial business needs. Music and video files that are downloaded from websites, forums and file sharing sites should never be mixed with crucial data.

Keep in mind: even reports on Edward Snowden’s 2013 activities show that he used a flash drive when he downloaded NSA data. The USB stick was also the vehicle of two other famous cyber compromises, the devastating malware, Stuxnet worm, and the data exfiltration vector associated with the Flame virus. The removable data was plugged into a computer, secretly collects data based on certain keywords. The stolen documents are then hidden in a secret folder on the USB drive until it connected to any Internet-enabled computer again. Then, the documents automatically sent to certain IP addresses of the originating perpetrators for their purposes.

Like DDoS attacks, compromising removable media are often a cover for or part of other fraudulent activity such as the stealing of sensitive documents, extortion, and ransom and not just childish mischief.

Source by Lisa Alfrejd

eBook Formatting For Amazon Kindle and Epub Kobo Writing Life – A Step by Step Guide For Beginners

Get Your Novel Selling On Amazon Kindle

First you’re going to transfer the words you’ve been slaving over, correcting, deleting, etc to PLAIN TEXT. This will get rid of any hidden formatting glitches that suddenly make your words appear in places on the page where you don’t want them.

BEFORE you transfer your text to this document, make a SAFE COPY so that you can’t lose all your work.

To make a SAFE COPY:

FILE > SAVE AS > In ‘Save As’ line write SAFETYnameofdocument. In WHERE – select somewhere you’ll find it easily like ‘Desktop’.

Click > SAVE

CLOSE that document.

Now return to your original final document.

Transfer all your text to TEXT EDIT/NOTEPAD:

OPEN a blank TEXT EDIT/NOTEPAD document:

MAC: Find the TEXT EDIT Application. Click FINDER (funny blue face at the absolute bottom left of screen). Click the APPLICATIONS folder. Scroll down till you see Text Edit and double click on it. This opens the Application Icon (A piece of paper and a pen) in your control board running across the bottom of the screen. Click on the Icon to open a fresh Text Edit Document.

On very old Macs this App is called Simple Text

PC: On PCs this App is called NOTEPAD.

Highlight all of your text:

Return to your original Master doc. Click EDIT (right at top of screen) > SELECT ALL

A shadow runs across all of the text.

Now transfer it:

Click APPLE + C (CONTROL + C on PC) which copies the text somewhere deep inside your computer

Move cursor to your blank Text Edit/Notepad page


Your text is now on the page.

Click FORMAT (right at top of screen) > Make Plain Text.

All your fonts and formats will disappear, leaving just the writing.

OPEN A FRESH NEW WORD DOCUMENT don’t worry about the page sizes or anything like that, you don’t need to bother with that as long as it’s a basic, standard kind of a page layout.

Now cut and paste your plain text back onto this fresh Word document.

The text will appear in the font you have set in Word. Use a basic, standard font like Times New Roman.

This is now, technically, a clean copy ready to be transferred to Kindle. Save it and name it KINDLE-booktitle.

Now, before transferring to Amazon KDP, the Kindle sales platform, you’ll need to:

a) Go through the text and re-insert any text formatting that’s been lost like itallics/bold. Don’t mess with the spacings yet, leave them completely alone.

b) Justify the margins. Remember, this document will not appear on Kindle as you see it written on the page. The machinery transfers your text in its own way, so only do the basics and you’ll be less likely to screw up.

Kindle automatically indents the first line of every paragraph. To keep it simple, therefore, justify your margins to the left. In your Toolbar look for the rows of parallel lines, they’re called Align Left, Centred, Align Right, Justified.

Highlight all your text EDIT > Select All.

Then Click the first on L parallel lines icon Align Left.

c)Now add your front matter, title, copyright etc. You don’t need a picture cover inside your document. See Amazon Kindle’s Simplified Formatting Guide.

d) Now for the spacings. This is where it’s a bit weird. Have your text run continuously between each chapter, if a heading within a chapter is at the bottom of the page don’t move it to the next page because once it transfers to Kindle the text will keep on running consecutively. Keep sub-headings close together, don’t space things out or huge gaps will appear in the kindle doc. What you do need to do is space between the front pages and between the chapters. So when you want a new page click PAGE BREAK at the top of your screen (Sometimes found at INSERT > Break > Page Break).

e) Check your spacings by hitting the Backward P in your Word toolbar (CTRL+8/APPLE+8). You will then be able to see where the page breaks are and make sure they’re all there.

Don’t worry about hyperlinking chapter headings. It’s necessary for non-fiction so that readers can jump to the required chapters, but not absolutely needed for fiction. Don’t put page numbers in either, ebook Masters don’t need page numbers.

Save Word to HTML Web page (if you have pictures, you can skip this and load in Word, spacings may be less accurate & need more adjusting. If you have “HTML Filtered” option, choose this, pictures sometimes load well with this, sometimes not at all.):

Click FILE > where it says Save As > scroll down to “Save As Web Page”.

You’ll now have 2 files, your Master and your HTML Web Page Master. The latter is the one you load to KDP. But first load to your Kindle (or Calibre see below) read through to check for formatting and spacing issues.


First, if you have any problems, Amazon digital email help:

kdp-support/at/ are helpful and usually quick to respond.

Now go to Amazon’s Digital Text Platform, KDP

If you don’t have a reader account with Amazon, create one.


Click GETTING STARTED & FAQs. Under the GETTING STARTED GUIDE > Publish Your Content

Scroll down to START HERE TO PUBLISH YOUR CONTENT > Enter Your Product Details

And you arrive at the first page of your dashboard.

Bookmark it so that you can find it easily whenever you need to:

Click BOOKMARK at top of screen > Bookmark this Page

Enter Details

The dashboard is your control panel.


The title of your book

Add Contributors:

Put your author name in.

Language etc are self-explanatory.

Ignore ISBN, you don’t need that.

As long as all the work is your own, click ‘This is not a public domain work’.

Target Your Book to Customers comes next. Choose two categories that most closely fit your title.

Search keywords: enter up to 7 key words that relate to your book. Separate each one by a comma. Think carefully as keywords really are key to bringing readers to your book sales page.

Upload Your Book Cover. Have it ready and waiting on your Desktop – click Browse for image and select the file name.

Enable DRM – click “Do not enable digital rights management” (see main book for details).

Upload Your Book File. Hit Browse and select the HTML file you made earlier. When you get the green tick and ‘Upload and conversion successful, click PREVIEW BOOK.

A little screen will open with your Kindle book on it. Now go through the preview window and see how it looks. To correct any spacings, put your original Word Master MS up on the screen, click on the backward P thing to bring up the tab marks and other indent marks and go through your Kindle Preview and your MS together.

Retransfer your new Word Master to HTML, marked 2-titleoffile so you don’t get it confused with your earlier draft. Browse and upload. Correct again until your satisfied. Keep words and headings close together for best results.


Verify Your Publishing Territories

Click Worldwide rights, assuming nobody holds rights in any other country.

Choose Your Royalty. For a 70% Royalty charge $2.99 or above. For anything lower you’ll need to go for the 35% royalty.

Kindle Book Lending. Tick Allow.

Tick Accept Terms and conditions.

Tick Save And Publish.

You’re on.

It takes anything from a couple of hours to 48 hours for your book to appear. When it does, buy it and read it through again. If anything’s not right, go to your bookmarked dashboard page and upload a corrected version. You can change your book as often as you like. You can change your price as often as you like. See what other books in your category are charging and take it from there.

Step by Step Guide To Making A Basic Epub Master for Direct Loading To Kobo Writing Life (Plus Other Epub Sales Platforms – iBooks, NOOK Etc.)

Make a new copy of your Kindle Word document and label it TitleofBook-KOBO.doc.

Go through the text and take out any references that you may have in your front and back idents which refer to Amazon. You may be asking readers to kindly think about reviewing your book on Amazon, for example. Delete, or change ‘Amazon’ to ‘Kobo’.

Make sure your chapter listings are listed straight through from beginning to end with no breaks. How To Publish An Ebook On A Budget – An Author’s Guide, for example, (from which this guide is extracted) is divided into four parts. My original index was divided by these part separations. This threw up an almighty storm when it came to the ePub reader trying to decipher chapter separation in its Table of Contents and the whole thing crashed. So it’s chapter listing, if you have them, at the front of your document reading simply all the way through: 1,2,3 etc.

Save as HTML (“Web Page”) (“filtered” if you have that option).

Now to download the free ebook reading and creation tool Calibre If you’re using an older version of Calibre on an old Mac this might not work. You’ll have to beg or borrow a PC or modern Mac that will download the latest version of Calibre which is a breeze, formatting-wise, compared to the older versions. Watch the simple tutorial video which shows you what all the basic buttons do.

First make a new file on your desktop to store Calibre ebooks. Open the list of computer files and folders at your computer START or Apple Finder button. The list will be something like ComputerUser’sName/Documents/Music/Games/Computer/Control Panel. You need to click the Computer User’s Name, which will probably be your login name at the top of the list. Then go to > New Folder and label it CALIBRE. You will now have a Calibre Folder on your desktop.

Open the Calibre Dashboard. Click “ADD BOOKS” top Left. > Look for your ComputerUsersName label > from there you can get to your documents. Select your Kobo HTML file.

It will be added to your Calibre library.

On the Calibre Dashboard, select little arrow next to Blue EDIT METADATA icon, top row left.

Select “Edit Metadata Individually”.

Check title and author are filled in correctly. If your ebook is already online, go to bottom and click “Download Metadata” and Calibre will automatically fill in description, cover etc.

If the ebook and/or cover isn’t online click “Change Cover” “Browse” to find your cover to add.

Now click the brown “convert books” icon at the top next to Metadata icon.

A window will open. On the left near the bottom you’ll see the blue EPUB OUTPUT arrow. Click.

A wheel will spin on the bottom right. When this has stopped. You’ll see, on the right just below the cover image, that EPUB has been added to the formats.

Now get rid of the ZIP format. Right click the ZIP ident and hit delete.

Click on the title in your Calibre listing. A window will open, select the 3rd option down “SAVE TO DISC” > then 4th option “Save only Epub Format to Disc In Single Directory”.

Click “Desktop” > highlight “Calibre Books” and click “Select Folder”.

You are now done with Calibre. Don’t forget to Donate if you can afford to give the Calibre people anything for providing this service free of charge.

Now go to Kobo Writing Life. Scroll down to bottom of page and click START PUBLISHING.

The interface is very simple to follow. Fill in the title, author details and book description.

When you’re prompted to upload your Epub book, you’ll see that Calibre has exported 3 files to the folder on your desktop. Select the top “EPUB” file, not the jpeg image or the OPF File (idents are on the far right of the line).

When it has uploaded you’re invited to preview your Kobo ebook.

Look through – checking especially for spacings and that the chapter listings on the left hand side have come out OK.

If you’re happy with the content, continue. If not, delete the file from Calibre, re-edit your master, retransfer to HTML and load to Calibre again.

Next you’re asked to apply Digital Rights Management, which is set to default at YES. And then Geographic Rights, default set to YES.

My query to Kindleboards on DRM resulted in the advice not to apply DRM, so I choose not to do this and select NO. As I hold world rights on my title I keep the YES there.

Set the price and hit PUBLISH.

Don’t forget to fill out your account details so that royalties can be paid directly into your bank account every month.

Source by Stephanie Zia

How to Install HP Printer Without A Disk

The article describes the procedure of installing an HP printer on a Windows computer. The methods compiled here are simple and correct. However, we recommend you to follow them properly to avoid facing hp printer problems. It will save your precious time as well as money that would indeed be wasted searching for HP support or HP technical support options.


Since it is already known that you do not have the original installation disk for your HP printer, make sure that you have other things handy. These include the model number or name of your printer and the Windows version. You must also have an active internet connection for driver download.

First make sure that your Windows is running the latest updates. Use the Windows Update feature in your computer to look for latest updates. Click on the Start button and browse to Control Panel. Look for Windows Update and double-click on it. Choose to download and install latest updates and patches for your Windows OS. You can also visit Microsoft’s official website to download updates. When done installing updates, reboot your computer when prompted. Wait for the computer to turn on again.

Open your web browser and then visit HP’s official website ( Navigate to the Support & Drivers section and then click on the Drivers & Software window. Enter the name or model number of your HP printer in the box and then press the SEARCH button. If you don’t know the name/number of your HP device, click on the How do I find my product name/number? link below the search box. It will display all the products, click to select your HP product and then you will be able to find your printer’s model number.

Once you have entered the desired model number/name, you will see a list of available software for different printer series. Click on the desired link and then follow rest of the instructions including language, operating system etc. Simply click on the Download button or link under Driver if you don’t want to go through the information given on the page. Save the file when prompted. Choose a place in computer like Desktop to save the downloaded file.

Extract the contents if it is zip file and save it on Desktop again. Now plug your HP printer’s cable into the back of the computer. If you see the New Hardware Found Wizard prompt, wait and let it automatically look for drivers and install them. Respond to on-screen prompts if asked to. Reboot your computer when prompted. Test a print page to make sure that the printer is working fine.

If the automatic wizard doesn’t open, click on the Start menu and browse to Control Panel. Double click to open Hardware and then highlight Printers. Click the Add a Printer link and follow the onscreen instructions including the printer model number etc. When you see the successfully added HP printer message, press the Print a test page button at the bottom left corner to make sure that the device is working properly. When done, hit the Finish button. Reboot computer when prompted.

Additional Tips:

If you face any difficulty during the installation or while testing the print page, disable your firewall or anti-virus program. If the issue has resolved, continue with the installation or printing afterwards. When done, re-enable the firewall or antivirus program. If not, check that you have installed the correct printer drivers.

Source by Gaurav Srivastava

Cinema 4D – CS Tools, What They Are, Where To Get Them

CS tools are one of the coolest plugins for Cinema 4D that add special effects, special controls, special lighting with the complexity hidden, buried in the pre-built tool for you. It’s hard to say what it would take to create all these for yourself or what it would cost to buy them from a Cinema 4D shop. Fortunately, CS tools are free. Free to download, with free tutorials and a batch of free scene files from a variety of sites.

So where do you get the free CS tools for installation? There are several places but a favorite that follows up with tutorials and scene files and a lot of other Cinema tools is the Nick Campbell site, ala the ‘greyscale gorilla’. These tools are also available at author Chris Smith’s site, ‘CirlcesofDelusion’ or found easily at other locations through a Google search.

There are really just a few steps to installing CS Tools, most of these for creating a menu so you can access these tools as you would any other Cinema 4D feature and saving the new setup you create. After you download the tools, you need to place them in the library, objects folder. On my system this is “C:Program FilesMaxonCinema 4D R12libraryobject”. Place the contents of the downloaded zip file, all the CS Tools, C4D type files into this directory. There is a document included in the download which spells out the the installation path with other notes and a brief explanation for the individual tools.

After downloading the tools, you need another publicly available plugin which enhances your menu capability, the ‘OLX’ plugin from ‘Biomekk’.

The ‘Biomekk’ sites describes their plugin:

“OLX is a Cinema 4D plugin which replaces and extends Cinema’s built in Object Library functionality. Not only does OLX support submenus, but it supports separate libraries for documents, scenes, objects, materials, render settings, layouts, help files, and keyboard shortcuts.”

The fun part about Cinema plugins is that you copy the plugin source, copy it to the plugin directory for Cinema 4D, then restart it. There is no code compiling, no special configuration to make compatible with different releases. You download the version that matches your operating system ( i.e. Mac, Win 32 or Win 64), copy it to the plugin directory for Cinema 4D and restart the application. That’s it.

Once you have downloaded the ‘Biomekk’ menu code, copied to the appropriate Cinema plugin directory, and restarted Cinema 4D, you will see the new ‘OLX’ menu options under your ‘Plugins’ menu with the top menu options listed in Cinema 4D.

Now open the ‘OLX:Settings’ menu option, the first listed in the new ‘OLX’ menu; and set the location of your object library entries. The default setting is ‘C:Program FilesMAXONCINEMA 4D R12libraryobject’ in Windows 7 and a Cinema 4D release 12.0.

Here we have told the ‘OLX’ menu systems where the ‘CS Tools’ are located. Now we want a menu option, a menu icon that will let you open and access the tools. You use the ‘OLX’ menu for this too.

One of the features you are introduced to early in your Cinema 4D experience is the ability to customize your interface. Most tool sets, menu bar sets have a little highlighted bar at the top that you can ‘attach’ with your mouse and drag away. There might be a menu set you want to work with a lot, so you extract it from it’s group and simply dock on your work interface where it is convenient.

We want to extract one of the ‘OLX’ menu options to add to the custom menu we are creating so first, open the ‘Plugins->OLX’, attach to the highlight bar at top of menu options, drag this menu set outside where you can see all the options it offers. Right click on this menu set and choose ‘Edit Palettes’. With the menu options highlighted in blue, choose the ‘OLX:Merge Docuements’, drag this icon up to your icon menu set next to your ‘Globe’ content browser. Now you see a new menu icon on top, the ‘CS Tools’ icon.

You’ve just customized your Cinema 4D menu system! Issue the ‘Edit Palettes’ command again to close and ‘unselect’ them. Not only have you customized your menu system but when you click on the ‘CS Tools’ icon you just created, you see all the ‘CS Tools’ presented to you.

Now that you have customized your Cinema 4D layout, you want to be sure and save it. On the top menu options choose, ‘Window->Layout->Save Layout As’ and enter a meaningful name, like ‘CS Tools’ for example. If you haven’t changed anything else, you will be saving the standard workspace layout you normally work with in Cinema 4D plus the new additional menu option that presents your new CS Tools to you. When you launch Cinema 4D, the top left menu icon, ‘switch layout’ presents all the predefined layouts such as standard, animation, modeling, and now, your new custom menu: ‘CS Tools’.

Pretty cool, right? Now let’s start using the tools!

Source by Tom Womack

0X81000037 Windows 10 – Backup or Restore Error Fix

0x81000037, 0x80070001 & 0x80070003 are errors caused by Windows encountering a “reparse point” inside a folder which you’re trying to back-up.

Microsoft mentions that “reparse points” are the Windows equivalent to symbolic links in Linux. They allow you to “link” a folder to a different location on your hard drive, without having to move the folder.

The reason the error shows is because when Windows attempts to “backup” the folder in question, it cannot find the file that’s linked inside it. This makes Windows think that the file doesn’t exist, is inaccessible, or corrupted.

The errors will generally appear with these messages:

0x81000037: Windows Backup failed while trying to read from the shadow copy on one of the volumes being backed up

0x80070001: (Invalid Function)


To fix them, you have to remove any reparse points inside the folders you’re trying to back-up.


The main cause of the problem is that Windows does not recognize the location of a file.

The error may appear when using Windows Update, scheduling a Restore Point or generally show when you are using your system.

To fully understand the problem, you have to appreciate that whenever you use a personal computer, all it’s doing is processing billions of lines of code – much of which are stored in “files” on your persistent storage device (either Hard Drive or SSD).

In most OS systems, you can actually allow applications to load particular files by way of “linking” them to other hard drive locations.

For example, you may have a saved game file in your “Saved Games” folder – which you will be able to include in your actual game folder by way of a “symbolic link”.

The SymLink functionality is native to Linux, and Mac uses it too. Windows being Windows, it doesn’t use “symbolic links” – but “reparse points”. The functionality is the same in both cases.

The errors you’re experiencing are caused by your system being unable to load particular files – due to its lack of physical presence on the drive. To fix it, you need to fix the underlying bugs causing the error to show.


The way to fix the problem is to ensure that you’re able to clean up any of the folders that may be causing issues with “reparse points”.

Microsoft gives 3 ways to resolve the problem:

  • Reparse point directs to a volume that uses FAT as the file system
  • Reparse point is a “mounted volume” that contains compressed files (EG zip files etc)
  • Reparse point directs to the “root” of another volume

To resolve, you should follow the steps outlined below:

1. Remove Any “Mounted Volumes” / “Reparse Points”

The first step is to ensure that you don’t have any “mounted volumes” or “reparse points” on your system.

This might sound complicated, but is actually relatively simple:

  • On your keyboard, press “Windows” + “R” keys
  • This will bring up the “Run” dialogue – into it type “cmd” and press “Enter”
  • From the cmd prompt that appears, type “DIR /AL /S” and press “Enter”
  • This should show a list of the directories classed as “Reparse Points”
  • From the list, take the ones you feel are corrupting the backup, browse to them in “File Explorer”
  • When you identify the folder, right-click the volume and check if it says “Mounted Volume”
  • If it is, delete it by holding SHIFT and pressing DELETE
  • Once this has completed, restart your computer

After the restart, you should be able to test out what you were attempting to do before.

If the error disappears, it means that the problem has been resolved; if not, you’ll need to move onto the next steps.

2. Ensure Permissions

Next, the other problem you may have lies in the permissions of the system.Permissions are used in computing to determine which users can – and cannot – manage various resources within the system, and is typically based around “user roles” (admin etc).

To ensure that the errors are not replicated, you may be experiencing issues with regard to the way in which your user account is able to access particular files / settings.

To fix this, you need to be able to correct any permissions issues your system may have:

  • Go to the folder(s) you’re trying to backup / restore
  • Right-click on the folder and select “Properties”
  • From the “properties” dialogue, select “Security”
  • In here, press “Edit”
  • From the window that appears, type “Everyone” in the box and click “Check Names”
  • If the “Everyone” text becomes underlined, click “OK”
  • With “Everyone” selected, click “Allow” for “Full Control” in the bottom panel
  • Click “OK”
  • Try backup / restore again

If this doesn’t work, make sure you repeat the process for any other folder you’re trying to backup. Whilst it should not be an issue for most users, it will likely cause problems *if* your system has a lot of use (permissions not working etc). Further issues will likely be caused by some sort of “block” on the folders, either from antivirus or perhaps a virus infection on the system.

3. Clean Out Viruses / Malware

Next, your computer *may* have issues with virus / malware infections.

Whilst this may not seem like a cause of a file-system error, the problem lies in the way that many newer viruses end up targeting underlying files / folders, in order to block user access OR ensure that the infection has the ability to perform its nefarious work.

The point is that if you’re still experiencing the errors, it may be caused by a virus infection temporarily overwriting certain files/folders on your hard drive.

To fix this, you need to ensure you have adequate virus / malware protection:

  • Download MalwareBytes (free)
  • Save and install it onto your PC
  • Open the zip file and then run the software inside
  • When the software runs, set it to perform a full scan
  • After the scan completes, restart your system

Unlike viruses, “malware” (malicious software) often disguises itself as legitimate software applications, only causing problems *after* they gain access to your PC.

MalwareBytes is the only tool entirely dedicated to removing malicious infections from Windows systems. If after performing the steps above, and cleaning out any potential malware threats, you find Windows still unable to perform a backup, you’ll be best seeking the opinion of someone with more specific knowledge of your system. You may also want to disable any antivirus applications you have running as these could conflict with (block) the backup process.

4. Run “Troubleshooter” Tools

If you’re still experiencing the error, you should run one of the “troubleshooters” inside Windows 10.

The troubleshooter systems inside W10 actually relatively effective, and work as follows:

  • Click on the “Start” button (bottom left taskbar)
  • Select the “cog” / “Settings” icon from the left “charms” menu (just above the power button)
  • When the “Settings” screen loads, click on “Update & Security”
  • From the left menu, select “Troubleshoot”
  • From the list that appears, you should first click on “Windows Update” and then any other which pertains to what you’re trying to do
  • A small applet will load up – let it run and then just let it clean out any of the issues it finds
  • Once complete, restart your PC

This will generally resolve any of the core issues that Windows 10 has preventing the likes of Windows Update working. It’s not guaranteed to work, but it works for many common errors that inhibit the core functionality of W10.


Finally, if you don’t have any success with the above, running the SFC (System Files Checker) & DISM (Deployment Image Servicing and Management) tools are a great way to ensure the core Windows system is running as effectively as possible.

To do this, you need to follow the steps outlined here:

  • Press “Windows” + “S” keys on your keyboard
  • Type “CMD” into the search box
  • From the list that appears, right-click on the top listing and select “Run as Administrator”
  • When the CMD window loads, type “SFC /scannow” and press “Enter”
  • After this completes, type “DISM /Online /Cleanup-Image /RestoreHealth” and press “Enter”
  • Once this completes, restart your system

If the errors persist beyond these steps, it suggests a more specific issue with your particular system – which an Internet article will not be able to resolve on its own.

Further steps to resolve the error would need to involve someone who has specific access to your specific Windows system. To do this, there are a number of services online which can help – including the likes of SuperUser and Microsoft Answers. If you need more specific support, you may wish to contact a dedicated technician, although that will involve paying someone.

Source by Richard Peck

Convert a Word Document to Amazon’s AZW EBook Format Using DTP

Writing your novel for the Kindle is a lot easier than it may appear. While there is a variety of formats for which you can upload, the best format for most is Word.

Kindle Direct Publishing (formerly Digital Text Platform)

Amazon’s Kindle Direct Publishing (KDP) is the easiest way to publish your e-book on Amazon. For those still unfamiliar with e-readers, Amazon’s wireless reading device, the Kindle, allows you to download thousands of titles. Similarly, these same titles can also be downloaded for reading from your Mac, PC, or other device, such as the Android smartphone.


Before you can upload your book to the Kindle store, be prepared to supply the following information:

  • Book Title
  • Description
  • Language
  • ISBN (optional)
  • Publisher (optional)
  • Categories (choose up to 5)
  • Upload file ( in Word (.doc), Adobe PDF, Plain Text (.txt), ePub, RTF, HTML, zipped HTML (.zip) or Mobi (.mobi)
  • Create an Amazon Account

The first step is to create an account with Amazon’s Direct Publishing.

Your Member access to the KDP dashboard is where you will add book titles, enter details and upload the document for Kindle publication. The dashboard also manages sales reports and your account information. Make sure your bank and payee information is correct to prevent any delays to your royalty payments.

In your account area (the link at the top right corner of the KDP homepage) allows you to complete your account set up and become a publisher in the Kindle store. Your name, address and payment settings are required.

Add or Edit Book Title

Add a new title by clicking the “Add a new Title” button, or edit an existing title by scrolling to the right and clicking the “Action” button and select “Edit book details.” You can also delete book title from the Action Menu.

Book Information

NOTE: I am not going into depth in this post as to each section of information you need to add when preparing your book for Amazon. This information will be broken down in later posts. We are mainly concerned with how to upload your files correctly to Amazon using KDP.

Add the necessary information for your book, including the Title, and whether this is part of a series. (Consider Trademarking book series Titles). For contributors, you want to add yourself as the author, and any other people you wish to acknowledge, such as illustrators and editors.

Book Content

Kindle Direct Publishing lets you upload and convert your content from several formats. For best results, we recommend that you upload your content in HTML (HTM).

Supported Formats

The below formats are supported formats by KDP. Click here for samples.

  • Zipped HTML (.zip)
  • Word (.doc)
  • Adobe PDF (.pdf)
  • ePub (.epub)
  • Plain Text (.txt)
  • MobiPocket (.mobi and.prc)

For our example, we will be working with a Word document with images. To upload the Word document with images, you will need to “Zip” the file into an archive.

KDP states, “At this time, documents in.docx format are not supported on KDP. If your content has been created in.docx format, please resave your document in.doc format and use the file to upload through KDP.”

Amazon recommends you save your content file as a.doc (not.docx) by using the save as option from the file menu in Word. Many publishers have reported conversion errors with Word documents saved in the.docx file extension.

Zipping your File

According to KDP, all the files in archive must be in a single folder, without any files in subfolders (such as image files). Save your content in the web browser using the “Save As Web Page (Complete)” option or similar, which will include any images on the page. Then the resulting files can be put inside file.

NOTE: I was able to select the HTM file and the folder of images, with no problem on file conversion: however, please KDP’s guidelines should you have any issues.

For PC computers I use WinZip; Mac I use Stuffit Deluxe; however, there are many other Zip services online. Just do a simple search to find the software that works best for you.

Other Information on ePublishing

You can publish content that is in the public domain; however, Amazon may request additional information to confirm it is not under copyright. Copyright protection varies between countries so make sure you indicate your territory rights accurately.

Keywords will be important on how your book is found in the Amazon search. Choose 5 to 7 keywords, separated by commas, that best describe your work.

DRM, digital rights management, means if you want your Kindle book to be solely for Kindle users, or unlockable to be sold and converted to other devices. DRM technology inhibits unauthorized access to or copying of digital content files. Once you publish your title, this setting cannot be changed.


Sign up for Amazon’s Digital Text Platform or learn more from the DTP support.

Source by Suzanne Fyhrie Parrott